Contributing Factors to Autism

KPU, HPU and Autism

KryptoPyrrolUria (KPU) also known at HemoPyrrollactanUria (HPU)

This is a condition which is being found in about 98% of Autistic children. The child loses through the urine very large amounts of Zinc, Vit C, Silica, B6, Biotin and Manganese. Hence it makes it very hard for them to detox effectively or fight infection.

Abram Hoffer MD discovered this condition in1958. In the urine of his schizophrenic patients he discovered a compound he named “Mauve factor”, later falsely identified as kryptopyrrol, and finally correctly identified as hydroxy-hemopyrrolin-2-one (HPL). To keep things simple, this condition is today most often referred to as KPU.

Other names used in the literature: Malvaria, Pyrroluria, HemoKryptoPyrrolLactamUria, Mauve.

KPU patients loose supra-physiological amounts of zinc, B6, Biotin and manganese in the urine.

  • KPU is caused by the defect of several of the 8 enzymes needed for the synthesis of heme
  • Heme is needed for liver detox reactions (cytochromes), Cystathionine synthase, Catalase, Heme-hemopexin for MT translation, Guanylate cyclase, Sulfite- reductase, NOS, Pyrrolase.
  • KPU patients have low serum glutathione levels, high NO levels, low histamine
  • KPU can be inherited or can be acquired (stress, toxins, infections)
  • Hoffer: 27/39 early schizophrenics positive
    • 10/14 criminal / patients with deviant behavior positive
    • 740 patients: all recovered schizophrenic’s negative, unrecovered 50% positive
KPU HPU and Autism in Children
  • Down syndrome 70%
  • Schizophrenia 40-70%
  • Autism 50%
  • ADHD 30%
  • ETOH 20-80%
  • Lyme disease and co-infections: 80% positive (Klinghardt)
  • Toxic Patients with mercury and lead retention: 75% (Klinghardt)


  • Light / sound / odor intolerance
  • Hypoglycemia / glucose intolerance
  • Pale skin / poor tanning/china doll look
  • Tremor / shaking / spasms
  • Environmental and food allergies
  • Autism/ most symptoms of ASD
  • Poor breakfast appetite
  • Cold hands or feet
  • Eosinophilia
  • Delayed or early puberty / sensitized hormone receptors
  • Stress intolerance
  • Emotional liability
  • Explosive anger
  • Anxiety / Withdrawal
  • Paranoia / Hallucinations
  • Perceptual disorganization
KPU, HPU and Autism
  • Nail spots (leukodynia)
  • Knee and joint pain Pessimism
  • Depression
  • Crime and delinquency
  • Substance abuse
  • Attention deficit / ADHD
  • Amenorrhea / irregular periods
  • B6-responsive anemia
  • Retention of toxic metals and environmental toxins
  • Poor dream recall
  • Acne
  • Obesity and anorexia
  • Stretch marks (striae)
  • Course eyebrows
  • Abdominal tenderness
  • Constipation

Common Physical Signs:

  • China doll look. 2009: Indigo baby
  • Eczema, skin eruptions, fungal infections, herpes virus outbreaks (perioral, index finger)
  • Thin fine hair, thin nails, deformed toe nails early after birth which gradually self-correct
  • Bloated belly
  • Doesn’t like to move (knee/hip/ankle pain)


  • Frequently gets hurt (Mr.Bump)
  • Anal itch/frequent parasites
  • Stress intolerant
  • Difficulty sleeping
KPU and Autism

KPU Causes

  1. Inherited
  2. Severe Psychological Trauma
  3. Chronic Infections (ie Lyme Disease)

KPU is a frequent co-factor in patients with:

  1. Heavy metal toxicity (detox pathways are overwhelmed and ineffective, lack of glutathione)
  2. Lyme disease (microbes induce KPU enzymes to deplete white cells of zinc and weaken their fighting abilities)
  3. Many – if not most – neurological illnesses (common in MS, Parkinson, Depression, Autism)

When KPU is correctly diagnosed and the recommended substitution of supplements is included in the treatment of any chronic illness, outcome can be dramatically improved.

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